Tree and shrub encroachment is common in areas where fire has been excluded, and has become a focal point of many oak management and restoration programs.
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Cocking, M.I., Varner, J.M., and R.L. Sherriff. 2012. California black oak responses to fire severity and native conifer encroachment in the Klamath Mountains. Forest Ecology and Management, 270: 25-34.