The National Fire and Fire Surrogates (FFS) study was designed to evaluate differences among alternative fuels reduction treatments in seasonally dry forests throughout the country, and to test the assumption that mechanical treatments might be used to accomplish the same stand structure and ecological goals as prescribed fire.
McIver, J.D.; Stephens, S.L.; Agee, J.K.; et al. 2013. Ecological effects of alternative fuel-reduction treatments: highlights of the National Fire and Fire Surrogates (FFS) study. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 22(1): 63-82.